Building Muscle

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Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.   When properly performed, strength training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being, including increased bone, muscle, tendon and ligament strength and toughness, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury, increased bone density, increased metabolism, improved cardiac function, and elevated HDL (“good”) cholesterol. Training commonly uses the technique of progressively increasing the force output of the muscle through incremental weight increases and uses a variety of exercises and types of equipment to target specific muscle groups. Strength training is primarily an anaerobic activity, although some proponents have adapted it to provide the benefits of aerobic exercise through circuit training.   Sports where strength training is central are bodybuilding, weightlifting, powerlifting, strongman, Highland games, shotput, discus throw, and javelin throw. Many other sports use strength training as part of their training regimen, notably american football, wrestling, rugby, track and field, rowing, lacrosse, basketball, poledancing (or polefitness) and hockey. Strength training for other sports and physical activities is becoming increasingly popular.   Contents 1 History 2 Basic principles 2.1 Terminology 2.2 Realization of training goals 2.3 Progressive overload 2.4 Split training 2.5 Intensity, volume, and frequency 2.6 Periodization 3 Benefits 4 Common concerns 4.1 Bodybuilding 4.2 Nutrition 4.3 Gender differences in mass gains 4.4 Muscle toning 4.5 Safety concerns related to children 4.6 Weight loss 5 Safety 6 Methods and equipment 7 Aerobic exercise versus anaerobic exercise 8 Exercises for specific muscle groups 9 Advanced techniques 9.1 Set structure 9.2 Combined sets 9.3 Beyond failure 9.4 Other techniques 10 See also 11 Footnotes 12 Bibliography   History   Arthur Saxon performing a Two Hands Anyhow with an early kettlebell and plate-loaded barbell.   Until the 20th century, the history of strength training was very similar to the history of weight training. With the advent of modern technology, materials and knowledge, the methods that can be used for strength training have multiplied significantly.   Hippocrates explained the principle behind strength training when he wrote “that which is used develops, and that which is not used wastes away”, referring to muscular hypertrophy and atrophy. Progressive resistance training dates back at least to Ancient Greece, when legend has it that wrestler Milo of Croton trained by carrying a newborn calf on his back every day until it was fully grown. Another Greek, the physician Galen, described strength training exercises using the halteres (an early form of dumbbell) in the 2nd century. Ancient Persians used the meels, which became popular during the 19th century as the Indian club, and has recently made a comeback in the form of the clubbell.   The dumbbell was joined by the barbell in the latter half of the 19th century. Early barbells had hollow globes that could be filled with sand or lead shot, but by the end of the century these were replaced by the […]

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